Optimal battery cells for grid-serving applications

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In the context of the energy transition and the resulting expansion of renewable energies, the electrical grid is changing. As generator-based nuclear and coal-fired power plants will be switched off, inverter-based feed-in battery plants have to provide the ancillary services to stabilize the electrical grid in the future. Grid services are used to stabilize the electrical grid after a fault or deviation from the nominal state. Due to the energy transition, the situation in the electrical grid is changing and new markets and requirements for grid services will arise or become more dominant in the future, like: Spinning reserve, reactive power supply, redispatch, voltage quality, black start capability, grid booster, gradient control or optimization feed-in management. Different cell technologies are appropriate for different applications.
Lead-acid (LAB) and lithium-ion batteries (LIB) can be employed for peak shaving. LABs, sodium-sulfur (NaS) and nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries match the requirements for frequency regulation. Demand response can be served utilizing LIBs. The aluminum dual ion battery (ADIB) with the number of high cycle and enormous power density spans the gap between super capacitators and batteries offering key performance indicators. BESSs can be characterized by the power rating, efficiency, cycle number, depth of discharge, self-discharge and costs per kW or kWh.
To identify optimal and economical operation, a coupling method between new grid services and new cell technology has been developed.
In future 24 analysed and summarized grid service as well as 37 analysed and summarized battery cell technologies will be published and investigated with respect to the coupling.

Acknowledgements
The project on which this publication is based was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research under grant number 03XP0307C. The author is responsible for the content of this publication.

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